Via this column, we’ll explore one grammar rule each week. If you have a grammar question you’d like me to address, please drop me a line at grace.lavigne @prnewswire.com and I’ll do my best to answer it.
Punxsutawney Phil saw his shadow this Groundhog Day, so that means six more weeks of “winter.” Phil has doomed us all. So in light of our dependence on this glorified vermin’s weather-predicting skills, we will be discussing dependent and independent clauses.
(Do groundhogs even have claus-es?)
An independent or main clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone. A grammatical sentence can include:
- A single independent clause: Having a rodent predict the weather seems silly.
- An independent clause plus a dependent clause: Having a rodent predict the weather seems silly, but having a talking head do it seems worse.
- Two or more independent clauses: Phil actually controls the weather, and he is a cranky dude.
Conjunctions are words that link groups of words together, and specify the words’ relationships to one another. Coordinating conjunctions (words like and, but, because, or, for, nor, yet, so) are used to join words of equal grammatical weight (independent clauses).
- Some say “Phil” was his father’s name and some say “Phil” was his mother’s name.
- Phil won’t dance with you to “The Pennsylvania Polka” because he hates that song.
A dependent or subordinate clause cannot stand alone and implies there is more information coming. On its own, a dependent clause is incomplete in meaning.
- Since Phil can’t speak.
- While he pets Phil.
- As Phil was eating.
Subordinating conjunctions cause independent clauses to become dependent (like since, although, after, as, as if, because, before, despite, even if, in order that, so that, unless, until, whenever, whereas, while).
- Subordinating conjunctions can simply be tacked on to an independent clause to make it dependent.
- People from all over gather to see Phil emerge from his den, but it’s just another reason to stay up all night drinking
- It is just another reason to stay up all night drinking is an independent clause until you add the subordinating conjunction but.
- Or subordinating conjunctions can replace the subject to make the sentence dependent:
- Phil’s den smells really weird.
- Replace Phil’s den with which and it becomes dependent: Which smells really weird.
- But the dependent clause is grammatical within a larger sentence: Phil likes company in his den, which smells really weird.
Written by Grace Lavigne, editor of ProfNet, a service that helps journalists connect with expert sources. Grammar Hammer is published weekly on ProfNet Connect, a free social networking site for communicators. To read more from Grace, check out her blog on ProfNet Connect.